News Releases



New Grant Opportunity Available From Neuroendocrine Tumor Research Foundation-American Association for Cancer Research253361511/24/2015 9:10:04 PM Releases/AllItems.aspx801False2015-11-24T14:00:00Z<div class="ExternalClassAF8846B8C5B245FBADBDC32FCDB90B1D"><p>PHILADELPHIA — The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the <a href="https&#58;//" target="_blank">Neuroendocrine Tumor Research Foundation</a> are pleased to announce a new grant opportunity.</p><p>The Neuroendocrine Tumor Research Foundation-AACR Grant represents a joint effort between the organizations to promote and support innovative research on neuroendocrine cancers.</p><p>“The AACR is excited to partner with the Neuroendocrine Tumor Research Foundation to provide important resources to a promising independent investigator who is conducting cutting-edge research that will further our understanding of neuroendocrine cancers,” said Mitch Stoller, executive director of the <a href="https&#58;//" target="_blank">AACR Foundation</a>. “There are many types of neuroendocrine cancer, and much more research is needed if we are to identify new targets for treatments that bring renewed hope to patients.”</p><p>“The Caring for Carcinoid Foundation has had a long and highly productive relationship with the AACR for years. As we open a new and exciting chapter in our work as the Neuroendocrine Tumor Research Foundation, our commitment to attracting novel approaches built on solid science to control and conquer neuroendocrine cancers is stronger than ever,” said Ron Hollander, executive director of the Neuroendocrine Tumor Research Foundation. “We look forward to receiving robust proposals and making significant progress in 2016 through this dynamic collaboration.” </p><p>The research proposed for funding may be in any discipline of basic, translational, clinical, or epidemiological cancer research. Applications are invited from researchers currently in the field, as well as investigators with experience in other cancer or biomedical research areas that may have direct application and relevance to neuroendocrine tumors.</p><p>The grant provides $250,000 over two years, with the grant term to begin July 1, 2016. The recipient will formally accept his or her grant at the AACR Annual Meeting 2016, held April 16-20 in New Orleans.</p><p>Interested investigators can find further details <a href="/Funding/Pages/Funding-Detail.aspx?ItemID=33" target="_blank">online</a>. Applications must be submitted by noon ET, Jan. 12, 2016, using the <a href="https&#58;//" target="_blank">proposalCENTRAL website</a>. Additional inquires may be directed to Ashley Jones at <a href="mailto&#58;"></a>. </p></div>
​American Association for Cancer Research Congratulates Past-president Elizabeth Blackburn on Her Appointment as New Salk Institute President1082411/19/2015 8:26:19 PM Releases/AllItems.aspx800False2015-11-19T20:25:00Z<div class="ExternalClass434AC0D7F2EA48C69EB06B14385740D8"><p>PHILADELPHIA — The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) congratulates Elizabeth Blackburn, PhD, on her appointment as president of the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">Salk Institute for Biological Studies</a> in La Jolla, California. Blackburn, a Nobel laureate and fellow of the AACR Academy, served as president of the AACR from 2010 to 2011 and on the AACR board of directors from 2006 to 2009.<img alt="Elizabeth Blackburn, PhD" src="/PublishingImages/Blackburn_Elizabeth_150x200.jpg" style="margin&#58;10px;vertical-align&#58;auto;float&#58;right;" /></p><p>Blackburn, who is currently a professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco, will assume her new role at the Salk Institute Jan. 1, 2016. She has served as a nonresident fellow at the Salk Institute since 2001. She will succeed William R. Brody, MD, PhD.</p><p>“On behalf of the American Association for Cancer Research, I wish to extend sincere congratulations to our Past-president Dr. Blackburn on her appointment as president of the Salk Institute,” said Margaret Foti, PhD, MD (hc), chief executive officer of the AACR. “Dr. Blackburn is a highly esteemed researcher and scientific leader, and her extraordinary expertise in basic research and her dedication to accelerating scientific discovery and its translation to the clinic will be invaluable to the mission and future goals of the Salk Institute.” </p><p>Blackburn received the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 2009</a> along with her colleagues Carol W. Greider, PhD, and Jack W. Szostak, PhD, for discovering how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and for discovering the enzyme telomerase, which maintains telomere ends and thereby plays a key role in cell replication, cell aging, and human cancers. Her Nobel Prize–winning research revolutionized the understanding of how cells function and has been characterized as one of the most important discoveries in the field of molecular genetics.</p><p>Her collaborative research showing how telomerase maintenance varies in humans, especially as a result of stress, has also led to current explorations of whether telomerase can be modulated to prolong cell life to treat age-related diseases, or whether it can be deactivated to intercept cancer.</p><p>In addition to the Nobel Prize, Blackburn’s outstanding scientific accomplishments have been recognized with numerous other awards including the 2006 Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research, the 2005 Kirk A. Landon-AACR Prize for Basic Scientific Research, the 2001 General Motors Alfred P. Sloan Award, the 2001 Pezcoller Foundation-AACR International Award for Cancer Research, the 2000 AACR-G.H.A. Clowes Memorial Award, and the 1998 Canada Gairdner International Award. She is also an elected member of the Institute of Medicine, fellow of the Royal Society, and fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.</p></div>
Smokeless Tobacco Users Had Higher Levels of Exposure to Nicotine and a Potent Carcinogen Than Cigarette Smokers1082111/18/2015 3:07:34 PM Releases/AllItems.aspx798False2015-11-18T05:05:00Z<div class="ExternalClass3BB22412AD044C92A12D6BDDFAE9597B"><p>PHILADELPHIA — U.S. adults who used only smokeless tobacco products had higher levels of biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and a cancer-causing toxicant—the tobacco-specific nitrosamine NNK—compared with those who used only cigarettes, according to a <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">study</a> published in <em>Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers &amp; Prevention</em>, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. </p><p>“Even though smokeless tobacco is used less than cigarettes, it continues to be used among several population groups, particularly men and young people, which is a cause for concern because it has been found to have several adverse health effects and identified as a cause of cancer,” said Brian Rostron, PhD, an epidemiologist in the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">Center for Tobacco Products</a> at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). “Previous small studies have found high levels of toxic constituents including carcinogens [cancer-causing agents] in smokeless tobacco users, but analyses of nationally representative data have been generally lacking to date.</p><p>“Our analysis of data from <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">NHANES</a> [National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey], a large, nationally representative study of U.S. health behaviors and outcomes, generated results consistent with those from previous smaller studies,” added Rostron. “Levels of biomarkers of exposure to nicotine and the cancer-causing tobacco constituent NNK were higher among exclusive smokeless tobacco users than exclusive cigarette smokers. This continues to put smokeless tobacco users at risk for adverse health effects, including cancer.”</p><p>Rostron and colleagues analyzed data on biomarkers of exposure to seven tobacco constituents, including nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamine, available from 23,684 adults who participated in NHANES from 1999 to 2012. Participant-reported cigarette and smokeless tobacco use was used to categorize individuals into four groups. There were 16,313 nontobacco users, 488 exclusive smokeless tobacco users, 6,791 exclusive cigarette smokers, and 92 dual cigarette and smokeless tobacco users.</p><p>The researchers found that the geometric mean serum level of cotinine, the biomarker of nicotine exposure, was higher in exclusive smokeless tobacco users compared with exclusive cigarette smokers&#58; 178.9 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) versus 130.6 ng/ml. The geometric mean urine level of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), the biomarker of NNK exposure, was also higher in exclusive smokeless tobacco users compared with exclusive cigarette smokers&#58; 583.0 picograms per milligram (pg/mg) of creatinine versus 217.6 pg/mg of creatinine.</p><p>“Our findings demonstrate the need for continuing study of the toxic constituents of smokeless tobacco as well as their health effects on the individuals who use them,” said Rostron. “This is why the FDA and CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] are continuing to analyze and monitor biomarker levels among tobacco users and why the FDA and NIH [National Institutes of Health] are collaborating on the <a href="https&#58;//" target="_blank">Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health </a>[PATH] Study, a large longitudinal study in which biospecimens such as blood and urine have been collected.”</p><p>Rostron explained that although the current study uses the best available data, the nature of the data collected in NHANES is a limitation to the study. For example, because NHANES is a general health survey, there is no detailed information on the type of smokeless tobacco product used; there is no information on the quantity of the smokeless tobacco product used; and there is no information on duration or former use of smokeless tobacco products. He concluded that PATH Study data will allow for more specific analyses of tobacco use and harm.</p><p>The study was supported in part by both the FDA and CDC. Rostron has no conflicts of interest to declare.</p></div>
Investigational Immunotherapeutic Increased Bladder Cancer Survival1082211/18/2015 9:40:19 PM Releases/AllItems.aspx799False2015-11-18T05:05:00Z<div class="ExternalClass1B99D037A9A14CF391F7E2B6BCD628F5"><p>​PHILADELPHIA — Among patients with metastatic <a href="https&#58;//" target="_blank">bladder cancer</a> that had progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy, those who received an investigational, personalized peptide cancer vaccine and best-supportive care had extended overall survival compared with those who received best-supportive care alone, according to <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">results</a> from a randomized, phase II clinical trial published in <em>Clinical Cancer Research</em>, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.<img alt="Masanori Noguchi, MD, PhD" src="/PublishingImages/Noguchi_Masanori_150x200.jpg" style="margin&#58;10px;vertical-align&#58;auto;float&#58;right;" /></p><p>“Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of advanced cancer,” said Masanori Noguchi, MD, PhD, a professor in the Clinical Research Division of the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">Kurume University Research Center for Innovative Cancer Therapy</a> in Japan. “In this study, we assessed whether a novel immunotherapeutic approach that we have devised, called personalized peptide vaccination, could improve outcomes for patients who have advanced bladder cancer that has progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy. This is a disease for which the prognosis is poor; median survival is just 13 to 15 months from the time of starting platinum-based chemotherapy.</p><p>“We were excited to see that personalized peptide vaccination led to a significant improvement in overall survival,” continued Noguchi. “This suggests that this immunotherapeutic approach might become a treatment option for advanced bladder cancer after failure of platinum-based regimens. However, large-scale, randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm our results.”</p><p>Noguchi and colleagues enrolled 80 patients with bladder cancer that had progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy in the phase II clinical trial. Thirty-nine patients were randomly assigned to personalized peptide vaccine and best-supportive care and 41 to best-supportive care. Best-supportive care included palliative radiotherapy, antibiotics, and pain relief. Noguchi explained that personalized peptide vaccination involved patients receiving two to four peptides once a week for eight weeks and then once every two weeks for four doses. The peptides were selected from a pool of 31 peptides, and the identity of the peptides selected for each patient was determined by which form of a marker called human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class IA was expressed by the patient and whether there were signs of an existing immune response to the peptides in the patient’s blood.</p><p>Nine patients assigned personalized peptide vaccine and best-supportive care and no patients assigned best-supportive care had a partial response, as assessed by <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">RECIST 1.1</a> criteria. Two of the patients who had a partial response were alive with no disease progression at the time of data cutoff, April 20, 2014.</p><p>The median overall survival for patients assigned personalized peptide vaccine and best-supportive care was almost twice as long as that for patients assigned best-supportive care&#58; 7.9 months versus 4.1 months.</p><p>The median progression-free survival was not significantly different between the two groups. Noguchi explained that this might be because it takes time for personalized peptide vaccination to cause an effective antitumor immune response, in contrast to chemotherapy or small molecules, which can cause immediate tumor shrinkage.</p><p>According to Noguchi, major limitations of the study are that the researchers enrolled only a small number of patients and that the clinical trial did not have blinded study design. To address this concern, he said that they are planning a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized phase II study in patients with advanced metastatic urothelial cancer (pelvis, ureter, and bladder cancer) after platinum-based chemotherapy.</p><p>The study was supported by grants from the Program for Fostering Regional Innovation (Global Type) of the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture in Japan. Noguchi has served as an advisory board consultant for Green Peptide Co. Ltd.</p></div>
New Model Helps Predict Breast Cancer Risk in Hispanic Women1081711/12/2015 9:29:51 PM Releases/AllItems.aspx794False2015-11-13T13:00:00ZAssessing U.S.- or foreign-born status helped establish risk <div class="ExternalClass396D853996E14EE5A1D484C208475E03"><p>ATLANTA — The first breast cancer risk-prediction model based entirely on data from Hispanic women, including whether a woman was born in or outside of the United States, provided a more accurate assessment of Hispanic women’s risk of developing breast cancer compared with existing models based on data from non-Hispanic women, according to a study presented at the <a href="/Meetings/Pages/MeetingDetail.aspx?EventItemID=68">Eighth American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Conference on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved</a>, held Nov. 13-16.<img alt="Matthew P. Banegas, PhD, MPH" src="/PublishingImages/Banegas_Matthew_150x200.jpg" style="margin&#58;10px;vertical-align&#58;auto;float&#58;right;" /></p><p>“Currently, there is no breast cancer risk-prediction model for Hispanic women,” said <a href="https&#58;//" target="_blank">Matthew P. Banegas, PhD, MPH</a>, investigator with <a href="https&#58;//" target="_blank">Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research</a> in Portland, Oregon, and primary author of the study. “We developed a model based on data on ethnicity, nativity, and breast cancer risk factors, as well as incidence and mortality rates in Hispanic women, which allowed us to create a more specific tool to predict their risk of developing invasive breast cancer.” </p><p>Presently, physicians and researchers use the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool</a> (BRCAT) from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to estimate risk, counsel patients, and design breast cancer prevention trials. However, since it is based, in part, on data from women of other races and ethnicities, it does not accurately reflect the risk of breast cancer in Hispanic women, and tends to underestimate their risk, Banegas said. </p><p>“The goal of our work is to enable Hispanic women to better understand their risk of developing invasive breast cancer. They will be able to discuss this information with their physician and what it means for them specifically,” added Banegas.&#160; </p><p>Factors that are incorporated into the new prediction model include&#58;</p><ul><li>A woman’s age at first full-term pregnancy&#58; Women who have children at younger ages tend to have a lower risk of breast cancer. Studies show that Hispanic women born outside the United States tend to start having children at a younger age than Hispanic women born in the United States. </li><li>A woman’s age at first menstrual period&#58; The younger a woman is when she starts menstruating, the greater her lifetime exposure to estrogen, which has been shown to increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has shown that Hispanic women born outside the United States may be older when they start menstruating than Hispanic women born in the United States.</li><li>Having had a biopsy for benign breast disease&#58; Breast cancer risk is increased among women with benign breast disease. In the risk-prediction model, the risk associated with this factor was slightly greater for Hispanic women born outside the United States than for Hispanic women born in the United States.</li><li>Family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives&#58; Women with a family history of breast cancer have higher risk of developing breast cancer. Prior studies show that Hispanic women born outside the United States are less likely to have a family history of breast cancer compared with Hispanic women born in the United States. </li></ul><p><br>Banegas and colleagues used data from the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study, focusing on 1,086 Hispanic women with breast cancer and 1,411 without breast cancer, to develop a Hispanic-specific breast cancer risk-prediction model. They separated the women into two groups&#58; those who were born in the United States and those who were born outside the United States, then estimated risks for both groups, applying their estimates to incidence and mortality data from the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">California Cancer Registry</a> and the NCI’s <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results</a> (SEER) program. The researchers validated their prediction model, in part, against data from Hispanic women in the <a href="https&#58;//" target="_blank">Women’s Health Initiative</a>, and found that the model was well calibrated for Hispanic women born in the United States, but overestimated the risk in foreign-born Hispanic women. Prior research has shown that foreign-born Hispanic women have about half the breast cancer risk of U.S.-born Hispanic women.</p><p>Since the model was developed using data from women in the San Francisco Bay area, it will be most applicable to women in that region, Banegas said. As researchers gather more data from Hispanic women in other parts of the United States and from those born outside the United States, those data should be incorporated into the model to increase the accuracy for those populations. </p><p>This study was supported by the NCI. Banegas declares no conflicts of interest. </p><p><a href="https&#58;//;vertical=default&amp;q=%23AACRdisp15" target="_blank"><img alt="#AACRdisp15" src="/PublishingImages/Twitter-bird-blue-on-white_50x50.jpg" style="margin&#58;5px;" /></a>&#160;<a href="https&#58;//;vertical=default&amp;q=%23AACRdisp15" target="_blank">#AACRdisp15</a></p></div>
Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Death Rates Take a Large Economic Toll1081811/12/2015 9:08:42 PM Releases/AllItems.aspx795False2015-11-13T13:00:00ZPreventable deaths account for $6.4 billion in lost productivity<div class="ExternalClass7DA36B29412C4F099E09F37098B73EEC"><p>ATLANTA — Disparities in colorectal cancer death rates take a large toll on the national economy, with poorer, less-educated communities bearing the greatest burden, according to data presented at the <a href="/Meetings/Pages/MeetingDetail.aspx?EventItemID=68">Eighth American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Conference on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved</a>, held Nov. 13-16. <img alt="Hannah K. Weir, PhD" src="/PublishingImages/Weir_Hannah_150x200.jpg" style="margin&#58;10px;vertical-align&#58;auto;float&#58;right;" /></p><p>“A substantial number of colorectal cancer deaths are potentially preventable through routine colorectal screening,” said <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">Hannah K. Weir, PhD</a>, senior epidemiologist with the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">Centers for Disease Control and Prevention</a> (CDC) in Atlanta. “We found that many of those preventable deaths are in lower socioeconomic status communities, and cancer puts a huge economic burden on those communities.”</p><p>Eliminating avoidable colorectal cancer deaths would result in $4.2 billion in productivity gains in men and $2.2 billion in women, Weir said. Figures are nationwide, and based on a 3 percent discount rate, a measure of future value. They include wages and salaries, plus expected financial contributions to family care; they do not include the cost of diagnosis, treatment, and care, according to Weir. She said that increasing awareness of colorectal cancer in lower socioeconomic status (SES) areas could help decrease colorectal cancer deaths and the associated economic losses. </p><p>The researchers also determined that in lower SES communities, 194,927 years of potential life were lost due to premature colorectal cancer deaths, compared with 128,812 years of potential life lost in the higher SES communities. “Those are years in which these people would have been contributing to the financial welfare of their family and their community,” Weir said. </p><p>Weir based her study on U.S. mortality and population data from 2008 to 2012, focusing on the number of colorectal cancer deaths of Americans between 50 and 74 years of age. She and her fellow researchers defined higher SES areas as those areas where at least 85 percent of the population had graduated from high school; all other areas were considered lower SES areas.</p><p>Weir applied the colorectal cancer mortality rate from higher SES communities to lower SES communities and found that 16.8 percent of the deaths in lower SES areas were potentially preventable if the mortality rate had been equal to that of the higher SES areas.</p><p>In the past few decades, disparities in colorectal cancer deaths have reversed, Weir said. The disease once disproportionately affected white patients, and those with higher socioeconomic status. As screening methods and awareness increased, the gap narrowed, then in recent years, reversed itself. </p><p>“Higher SES groups have better access to care, and have fewer barriers including being unable to take time off work,” she explained.&#160; </p><p>Weir said that her findings indicate that eliminating educational disparities in lower SES areas could help decrease colorectal cancer deaths and stem the productivity lost from those deaths. </p><p>Weir said one limitation of the study is that some states did not designate Hispanic status of their residents, so data on Hispanic communities may be incomplete. </p><p>The study was run by the CDC, and Weir declares no conflicts of interest.</p><p><a href="https&#58;//;vertical=default&amp;q=%23AACRdisp15" target="_blank"><img alt="#AACRdisp15" src="/PublishingImages/Twitter-bird-blue-on-white_50x50.jpg" style="margin&#58;5px;" /></a>&#160;<a href="https&#58;//;vertical=default&amp;q=%23AACRdisp15" target="_blank">#AACRdisp15</a></p></div>
Healthy Diet May Reduce Risk of Ovarian Cancer in African-American Women1081911/12/2015 9:14:33 PM Releases/AllItems.aspx796False2015-11-13T13:00:00Z<div class="ExternalClassAADD6ADEF8E34113876E7898EDB34274"><p>ATLANTA — A healthy diet may reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women, according to data presented at the <a href="/Meetings/Pages/MeetingDetail.aspx?EventItemID=68">Eighth American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Conference on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved</a>, held Nov. 13-16. <img alt="Bo (Bonnie) Qin, PhD" src="/PublishingImages/Qin_Bo_150x200.jpg" style="margin&#58;10px;vertical-align&#58;auto;float&#58;right;" /></p><p>“Because there is currently no reliable screening available for ovarian cancer, most cases are diagnosed at advanced stages,” said the study’s author, Bo (Bonnie) Qin, PhD, a postdoctoral associate at <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey</a>. “That highlights a critical need for identifying modifiable lifestyle factors, including dietary interventions.”<br>&#160;<br>Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States. African-American women are less likely than white women to be diagnosed with the disease, but more likely to die from it. In order to assess whether an improved diet could reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women, Qin analyzed the diets of 415 women with ovarian cancer and 629 control patients, using data from the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">African-American Cancer Epidemiology Study</a>, a population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-American women in 11 sites in the United States. </p><p>Qin; her mentor Elisa V. Bandera, MD, PhD, professor of epidemiology at Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey; and fellow researchers evaluated the impact of three index-based dietary patterns&#58; the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">2005 Healthy Eating Index</a> (HEI-2005), which was based on the federal Dietary Guidelines for Americans; the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">2010 Healthy Eating Index</a> (HEI-2010), which reflects the most recent dietary guidelines and has an increased emphasis on quality; and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), which is based on a different nutrition guide, the Healthy Eating Pyramid. </p><p>Women answered questions about their diet in the year leading up to a diagnosis (for patients) or to the time of an interview (for controls). They received scores based on numerous components of the three diets. </p><p>Qin said that among all African-American women in the study, those with the highest adherence to an AHEI-2010 diet were 34 percent less likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women with the lowest AHEI-2010 adherence. </p><p>Among postmenopausal women, the women with the highest quartile of HEI-2010 scores were 43 percent less likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer, and the women with the highest quartile AHEI-2010 scores were 51 percent less likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than the women in the lowest quartile.&#160; </p><p>Qin said the benefits of HEI-2010 come from higher intake of total vegetables, greens, beans, seafood, and plant proteins, combined with lower intake of empty calories, such as those from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars. Similarly, the benefits of AHEI-2010 derive from higher vegetable intake and lower intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fruit juice. </p><p>The diets have many common elements, but AHEI-2010 has more specific recommendations for protein and fat sources, including nuts, legumes, and omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. HEI-2010 uses an energy density approach, which recommends optimal intake of nutrients relative to a person’s daily diet.&#160; </p><p>Qin said further research is necessary to determine whether all aspects of the healthier diets contributed to reduced risk, or whether specific nutrients conferred the benefits. </p><p>“As a high quality diet is likely to have benefits for many chronic conditions, it is probably a safe bet for better health in general,” she said. </p><p>Qin said the main limitation of this study is that it required women to recall their diet up to one year before the study, which introduces the possibility of recall bias and inaccurate reporting.&#160;&#160; </p><p>The study was funded by the National Cancer Institute. Qin and Bandera declare no conflicts of interest. </p><p><a href="https&#58;//;vertical=default&amp;q=%23AACRdisp15" target="_blank"><img alt="#AACRdisp15" src="/PublishingImages/Twitter-bird-blue-on-white_50x50.jpg" style="margin&#58;5px;" /></a><a href="https&#58;//;vertical=default&amp;q=%23AACRdisp15" target="_blank">#AACRdisp15</a></p></div>
Receiving Curative Lung Cancer Surgery Varies by State1082011/12/2015 9:22:16 PM Releases/AllItems.aspx797False2015-11-13T13:00:00Z<div class="ExternalClass740B2D82172E4916BA7D9534EB463BFE"><p>ATLANTA — The likelihood of receiving curative-intent surgery for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) varies substantially from state to state, according to data presented at the <a href="/Meetings/Pages/MeetingDetail.aspx?EventItemID=68">Eighth American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Conference on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved</a>, held Nov. 13-16. </p><p>“We do not have a uniform quality of health care in this country,” said Helmneh M. Sineshaw, MD, MPH, senior epidemiologist and health services researcher with the American Cancer Society in Atlanta. “Curative surgery for NSCLC is one example, with disparities in health care across population subgroups.”</p><p>Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer, and the leading cause of cancer deaths for men and women in the United States, according to the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">National Cancer Institute</a>. NSCLC is the most common kind of lung cancer. If it is caught at an early stage, when the cancer is localized, it can potentially be cured by surgery, which would typically involve resectioning part of the lung or the whole lung, Sineshaw said. </p><p>Sineshaw said that previous studies have shown significant racial and socioeconomic disparities in the receipt of curative surgery for early-stage NSCLC. For this study, he and colleagues sought to examine the extent of, and factors associated with, variations in receiving curative surgery for early-stage NSCLC across states in the United States and whether the racial disparity varies by state.<br>&#160;<br>The researchers based their study on data from patients who were diagnosed with stage 1 or 2 NSCLC between 2007 and 2011 in 38 states and the District of Columbia, from population-based cancer registries compiled by the <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">North American Association of Central Cancer Registries</a>. </p><p>Sineshaw and colleagues found that Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Utah had the highest rates of receipt of curative surgery—about 75 percent in each state. They chose Massachusetts as the standard of comparison for all states. </p><p>The researchers found that the lowest likelihood of receipt was in Wyoming, where patients with early-stage NSCLC were 25 percent less likely than those in Massachusetts to receive curative surgery. The next largest gaps were in Oklahoma (20 percent less likely), New Mexico (19 percent less likely), Colorado (17 percent less likely), Louisiana (17 percent less likely), and Texas (16 percent less likely). <br>&#160;<br>Sineshaw said some of the disparity in the receipt of NSCLC surgery could be explained by geography, as states with major medical centers generally had higher rates. Also, insurance coverage could be a factor, he added, although adjusting for insurance resulted in only minor statistical differences.</p><p>“From state to state, the quality of insurance coverage may be different, even as we move toward universal health care,” he said. “Varying standards for copays, for example, can all add up and make a difference in the cost of treatment.” </p><p>Sineshaw said one potential way to narrow the disparity would be to further standardize health-care coverage. Also, he suggested, doctors across the nation could be encouraged to share information on their practices.</p><p>Sineshaw and colleagues also evaluated data on race to see whether disparities persisted. The study showed that non-Hispanic blacks were less likely than non-Hispanic whites to receive the surgery in all states/registries, although the disparities were significant in only two states—Florida and Texas—after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and clinical characteristics. In Florida, non-Hispanic black patients had a 12 percent lower chance of receiving curative surgery, and in Texas, non-Hispanic black patients had an 11 percent lower chance of receiving curative surgery than non-Hispanic white patients. <br>&#160;<br>Sineshaw said a limitation of the study is that it did not examine patient/physician communication, which he believes could influence a patient’s willingness to undergo curative surgery. Also, the study did not control for comorbidity, so some patients may have been ruled ineligible for the surgery due to outstanding health issues. However, accounting for state-level chronic obstructive lung disease prevalence did not change the results.</p><p>This study was supported by the American Cancer Society. Sineshaw declares no conflicts of interest.</p><p><a href="https&#58;//;vertical=default&amp;q=%23AACRdisp15" target="_blank"><img alt="#AACRdisp15" src="/PublishingImages/Twitter-bird-blue-on-white_50x50.jpg" style="margin&#58;5px;" /></a><a href="https&#58;//;vertical=default&amp;q=%23AACRdisp15" target="_blank">#AACRdisp15</a></p></div>
First-in-class Investigational Therapeutic Shows Early Promise for Lymphoma Patients1081511/11/2015 4:44:05 PM Releases/AllItems.aspx792False2015-11-11T05:05:00Z<div class="ExternalClassC4DB03D487DC41C6B3B473012B81BCF7"><p>PHILADELPHIA — The first-in-class, investigational, anticancer therapeutic pevonedistat was safe, tolerable, and showed some anticancer activity in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma, according to results from a phase I clinical trial <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">published</a> in <em>Clinical Cancer Research</em>, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.<img alt="Jatin J. Shah, MD" src="/PublishingImages/Shah_Jatin_150x200.jpg" style="margin&#58;10px;vertical-align&#58;auto;float&#58;right;" /></p><p>“Pevonedistat is a first-in-class, investigational small-molecule inhibitor of the NEDD8-activating enzyme,” said <a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">Jatin J. Shah, MD</a>, associate professor of medicine, director of myeloma clinical/translational research, and director of the lymphoma/myeloma fellowship program in the Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. “This enzyme is part of the ubiquitin–proteasome system, which is the target of a number of FDA-approved anticancer therapeutics, including bortezomib (Velcade), which is used to treat multiple myeloma and various types of lymphoma. Pevonedistat also alters the ability of cancer cells to repair damaged DNA.</p><p>“The most important findings from our study are that pevonedistat hits its target in cancer cells in patients, can be given safely, and has modest activity in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma, suggesting that we are on the right path,” continued Shah. “Although pevonedistat had modest activity as a single agent treatment, we expect greater activity when it is given in combination with standard therapy, and there are a number of combinations currently in clinical testing for acute myeloid leukemia.”</p><p>Shah and colleagues enrolled 44 patients in the phase I clinical trial, 17 with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma and 27 with relapsed/refractory lymphoma. Twenty-seven patients received escalating doses of pevonedistat on schedule A, which was days one, two, eight, and nine of a 21-day cycle, and 17 received escalating doses of the therapeutic on schedule B, which was days one, four, eight, and 11 of a 21-day cycle.</p><p>Three patients achieved a partial response&#58; one with relapsed nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma, one with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and one with relapsed peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Another 30 patients, 17 with lymphoma and 13 with multiple myeloma, achieved stable disease.</p><p>The maximum tolerated doses were 110 and 196 milligrams per meter squared on schedule A and B, respectively. Serious adverse events, including anemia, neutropenia, and pneumonia, were experienced by eight patients on each schedule.</p><p>“The pharmacodynamics data showed that pevonedistat hit its target in cancer cells in patients at low doses,” said Shah. “This is important because it may mean that we do not need to escalate the dose in future trials to increase anticancer activity; this has the potential to increase the risk&#58;benefit ratio of pevonedistat.”</p><p>According to Shah, a major limitation of the study is that this is a phase I clinical trial that enrolled only small numbers of patients, all of whom were very heavily pretreated, which may limit assessment of how active pevonedistat could be. Shah added that the researchers are very grateful to all the patients who enrolled in this and other trials because without patients, progress against cancer cannot be made.</p><p>The study was funded by Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd. Shah has a consulting or advisory role for the following companies&#58; FORMA Therapeutics, Array BioPharma, Novartis, Celgene, Onyx, and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd.; he receives research funding from Array BioPharma, Novartis, Onyx, Celgene, and Millennium Pharmaceuticals Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Ltd.</p></div>
​​Dr. Electra Paskett Honored With AACR Distinguished Lecture on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities1081611/11/2015 3:14:37 PM Releases/AllItems.aspx793False2015-11-10T14:00:00Z<div class="ExternalClassC4AD8981C8ED4710A36183018CE993EC"><p>ATLANTA — The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) congratulates Electra D. Paskett, PhD, MPH, on receiving the 2015 AACR Distinguished Lecture on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities, funded by Susan G. Komen. She will be honored at <a href="/Meetings/Pages/MeetingDetail.aspx?EventItemID=68">The Science of Cancer Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved</a>, held Nov. 13-16, in Atlanta.<img alt="Electra D. Paskett, PhD, MPH" src="/PublishingImages/Paskett_Electra_150x200.jpg" style="margin&#58;10px;vertical-align&#58;auto;float&#58;right;" /></p><p><a href="http&#58;//" target="_blank">Paskett</a> is the Marion N. Rowley professor of cancer research and director of the Division of Cancer Prevention and Control at The Ohio State University (OSU) College of Medicine in Columbus and professor of epidemiology in the OSU College of Public Health. She is associate director for population sciences, director of the Center for Cancer Health Equity, and program leader of the Cancer Control Program at OSU Comprehensive Cancer Center. She is being recognized for her decades of contributions to investigating and reducing cancer health disparities among the underserved. </p><p>Paskett will deliver her award lecture, “Just Because You Build It Doesn’t Mean They Will Come&#58; Addressing Disparities Along the Cancer Control Continuum,” during the opening plenary session, Friday, Nov. 13, 6&#58;30 p.m., in the Sheraton Atlanta Hotel.</p><p>Now in its sixth year, the <a href="/Research/Awards/Pages/Awards-Detail.aspx?ItemId=10" target="_blank">AACR Distinguished Lecture on the Science of Cancer Health Disparities</a> recognizes an investigator whose novel and significant work has had or may have far-reaching impact on the etiology, detection, diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of cancer health disparities. </p><p>“I am so honored to be receiving this award from two prestigious organizations that have brought cancer researchers and advocates together to address cancer disparities through science and partnership with communities. My research uses this successful model as well,” Paskett said.</p><p>Paskett’s pioneering efforts toward developing and testing interventions to eliminate cancer health disparities have led to critically important improvements in cancer screening and care in minority and low-income populations. Her work has earned her an international reputation as a leader in cancer health disparities, evidenced by her service in a wide range of leadership roles, including as chair of steering committees for the Patient Navigation Research Program and the Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities. By using community-based participatory research strategies, Paskett works to address disparities with community partners in various populations including inner-city African-Americans, rural populations, and residents in the Ohio-Appalachian region. She also demonstrates a steadfast commitment to training the next generation of cancer control and health disparities researchers, having mentored more than 100 junior faculty, graduate and medical students, postdoctoral and medical fellows, and residents. </p><p>Paskett has been an active member of the AACR since 2002. She is deputy editor for <em>Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers &amp; Prevention </em>and a member of the <em>Cancer Prevention Research</em> editorial board. Paskett has also been involved in the AACR Scientist↔Survivor Program, as a cancer survivor herself.</p><p>Additionally, she is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, past-president of the American Society of Preventive Oncology, section editor of the journal CANCER, and grantee of the Breast Cancer Research Foundation and Susan G. Komen. Paskett received her doctorate from the University of Washington in Seattle.</p></div>